A-immah                              Plural of Aalim / Leaders.
Aalim                                    A learned man.
Aalims                                  Leaders
Aameen/Ameen                  O Allah, Please accept our invocation.
Aamul Huzn                         Year of sorrow.
Aaquil:                                 Sane.
Abd                                      A male slave, a slave of Allah.
Abu/Aboo (Abee, Abaa)    Father of; used as a means of identification
Adhaan/Adhan                    The call to Salah (Prayer) pronounced loudly
Adl                                         Justice and Equity. A fundamental value governing all social behavior and forming the basis of all social dealings and legal framework. Its antonym is Zulm or injustice or inequity. In personal life it is often treated by Muslim moralists to be a minimum requirement of becoming a faithful Muslim, the desirable being, being the degree of ihsan, generosity. Thus giving anyone his due is adl but giving him more than his due, voluntarily, is IHSAN.
Afdal                                     The Best
Ahad                                      One
Ahadeeth/Ahadith             (see Hadith/Hadeeth)
Ahkams                                 Laws, values and ordinances.
Azhab                                    Meaning the Troops or the Confederates. The thirty-third Surah of the Qur’an and the name of the third important battle fought by the Prophet Mohammed PBUH.
Ahlul Bayt                            Family of the Prophet's household.
Ahlur Rushd                        Discerning people.
Ajrul Mithl                           A remuneration based on what is customary in the community
Akhirah                                Hereafter. Life after death. It includes the Day of Judgment and the neverending life after death.
Akhras                                  Mute Person
Al-Ameen/Amin                  The trustworthy
‘Alaq                                      Something that clings. Also translated as clot of blood or leech. Name of the ninety-sixth surah of the Qur’an.
Alayhi salaam                     “May Allah protect and preserve him” It is said after the name of the Prophet of Allah or after the name of an angel.
Al Firaq                                The separation
Al Khula                               See “Kula”
Alim                                       A knowledgeable person or a religious scholar in Islam.
Ali Imran                             The third surah of the Qur’an meaning the family of Imran.
Allah                                      The Creator and Sustainer of all. The supreme being. "The Uncaused Cause of all that exists; the Eternal."
Allahul Musta’an               Allah’s help is sought
Allahu Akbar                      Allah is the Greatest
Al-Ma'danu War Rikaaz Minerals and buried treasures.
Al Mu'awwidhatayn            The last two surahs of the Qur'an, i.e. Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Nas.
Al-Mut-ah                            The gift given to a wife.
Al-Na-Am                             Livestock.
Al Qullays                            The church which Abrahah built in San'a, intending to divert Arabs from the Ka'bah in Makkah to it.
Al Risalah                            The message which is sent by messenger.
Al Sarah                               The releasing/liberating of the marital bond.
Al Talaq Bil Kitabati Ilal Gha-ib                  The talaq in written form to one who is not present.
Al Talaqu Bil Isharah       The divorce by indication.
Amaanah                              Something given to someone for safekeeping. Trust.
A’mal                                    Actions or deeds.
Amanah                                (also known as Amanat) Meaning trust (2:283, 4:58, 8:27)
‘Ankabut                               Twenty-nineth surah of the Qur’an meaning the Spider.            
Ansaar/Ansar                      “Helpers”; the Muslims of Madinah who supported the Muslims who migrated from Makkah.
Ameen/Amin/Aameen       Said after the recitation of al-Fatihah, the first sura of the Qur’an that is a dua asking Allah to accept our prayer.
An’anah                                A narrator’s reporting by saying ‘from so and so’ not describing exactly in what form it was transmitted to him. This will only affect the authenticity of the narration if the one doing it is a mudallis.
Aqabah                                 The place near Makkah where Madinan Muslims made a covenant with Prophet Mohammed PBUH.
Aqd                                        A contract.
Aqd Saheeh                          A legal contract
Aqeemah                              A woman who cannot have children.
Aqeeqah                                The hair which is shaven off from the head of a new born baby when a sacrificial animal is offered.
Ar-Riqaab                            The slaves.
Araadib                                A specified measure i.e. 4 Araadib and 2 kilos = 61.36 kg.
Arafat                                   The plain 25km south-east of Mecca where all pilgrims gather on the 9th day of Hajj. (2:198)
Arba-ah                                Four.
Arkans                                  Principles.
Arkanul Islam                     The five pillars of Islam
Asadullah                             Lion of Allah, One of the titles of Khalifah Ali (ra)
Ashura’                                 Tenth day of the first Islamic month Muharram. Acknowledged as the day that Moses saved his people from Pharoah by Sunni. Day of mouringing for the Shia.
as-Sihah                                The authentic books of Hadith.
Asid                                        Violable
Asl                                          Origin/source/Root
Asr                                         Late afternoon prayer.
Ath-har                                 More distinct/more manliest (authentic).
Athar                                     Traditions of the Holy Prophet's companions
Awaaq                                   (Of silver) 200 Dirhams.
Awrah/Owrah                     Certain parts of the body necessary to be covered at all times.
Aws                                        Tribe of Madina
Awsaq/Awsuq                      (sing Wasq) 5 awsuq are equivalent to 653 kg. the nisab for zakah on agricultural produce.             
Ayah (pl. Ayaat)                 A sign of Allah; a verse of the Qur’an.
Ayt Al-Maal                         The concept of the Bayt-al-Maal implies that the money paid into the treasury are in Allah's trust and become the common property of the Muslims and that the head of the state merely holds the position of a trustee whose duty it is to expand the funds of the Bayt-al-Maal on the common concern of all its people. Thus the Bayt-al-Maal is responsible for collecting the revenues of the state and expanding them for the welfare of the people.
Ayyam at-Tashriq             The three days (11th, 12th, 13th) of the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
Ayyam-e-Jahilliyah          Period of ignorance.
Az-Zuru-U-Wath Thimaar         Vegetables and fruit
A-immah                              Plural of Aalim / Leaders. 


Ba-in                                      Irrevocable.
Bab                                        (Door) Subject.
Badr                                      The place 128 km south-west of Madinah where the Muslims fought their first battle against the infidels of Makkah (3:13, 8:41)
al-Baihaqi                            Refers to a collection of ahadith by Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Husain al-Baihaqi.
Bairu-Haa                            The name of a garden in Madinah.
Baitul Maqdis                     Sacred house situated in Jerusalem. i.e. Masjidul Aqsa.
Baitullah                              The hous of Allah in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Baligh                                   One who is mature (Compelled by law).
Banu/Bani                            means ‘children of’ or ‘tribe of’
Banu/Bani Haashim          The children of Hashim.
Bashar                                  Man
Basmalah                             see (Tasmiyah)
Baqar                                    Cows
Batil                                       Null and void.
Bay                                        Sale - also used as a prefix in referring to different types of sale -- Mu'ajjal, Muraabahah, Tawliyah, Wadi'ah
Bay mu'aijal                       Sale against deferred payment, either in a lump sum or instalments.
Bay muqayada                   Exchange of goods for goods with certain conditions
Bay salam                            An exceptional contract of sale causing an immediate payment of the price and admitting a delay in the delivery of the goods generally the crop produce. As a rule, the Holy Prophet is reported to have forbidden the sale of what is not in one's actual possession. Bay Salam is an exception to the above rule. It is declared as valid, subject to the condition that the quality and the nature of the article of sale and the time and place of delivery and the price are clearly defined at the time of making the contract of such a sale.
Bay't-ar-Ridwan                The Pledge of the Pleasure. The Pledge which took place at al-Hudaybiyyah and upon which Allah the Almighty revealed a special verse of the Qur'an to express His Pleasure with those believers who gave their allegiance to the Prophet.
Bayhaqiy                              The name of a leader in the science of Hadeeth.
Baytul-Maal                        The Muslim public treasury.
Baytullah                             The Holy Ka'ba - The House of Allah.
Bid’ah                                   Innovation; anything introduced into the Religion, in order to seek Allah’s pleasure, not having a specific proof or basis in the Religion.
Bint-Laboon                        A two year old colt.
Bint-Makhaad                     A yearling camels colt.
Birr                                        Meaning ‘righteousness’, The Qur’anic term refers to all good actions and efforts done to gain Allah’s favour and blessings.
BismikAllahumma            In your name, o Allah!
al-Bukhari                           Refers to Sahih al-Bukhari, the most authentic collection of ahadith of Imam al-Bukhari
Buraaq                                  Conveyance of Muhammad (S.A.W.) during Mi'raaj.
Ba-in                                      Irrevocable.


Da’eef                                  weak; unauthentic (narration)
Dafeenul Jahiliy-yah            Buried treasure during the days of paganism.
Dakhn                                   Any of several cereal plants bearing a large crop of minute nutritious seeds. 
Daroorah                              Necessity. 
Darud/Dahrood                  Reciting as-Salah ‘alam Nabiyy during Salah or at any other time. This is a Persian word.
Darul-harb                           An area or vicinity at war with Muslims. A state under non-Muslim sovereignty.
Da’wah                                  Literally call. This refers to the concept and practical implementation of inviting and calling a person or persons to abide by and accept Islam in its pure and unadulterated form.
Dayn                                      Anything outstanding on anybody. Debt.
Deen/Din                               Way of life prescribed by Allah i.e. Islam
Deen/Din ul-Fitra               The natural way of life or the religion of nature.
Dhikr/Zhikr                         Supplicating, remembering and praising Allah.
Dhimmiy/Thimmiy           The name of a non-Muslim living under Muslim sovereignty and paying Jizyah (taxes).
Dhul-Hijjah                          The month of Hajj. Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
Dhul-Qadah                         The eleventh month of the Islamic calendar.
Dhur/ Zuhr                          The afternoon prayer.
Dinars                                   Money/Coins.
Dirhams                                Coins (Eastern).
Diyah                                     Blood money to be paid.
Diyanah                                Religiously.
Diyanatan                            By way of religion.
Dua                                        Supplication to Allah. Invocation.
Duhr/Duha                           Forenoon
Dunya                                    This World/Earth.

Eejab                                     The pronouncement which the wally/wali gives over to the opposing party. Form of speech.
Eela                                       Abandonment (for his swearing).
Eemaan (Iman/Imaan)        faith; to affirm all that was revealed to the Messenger (may Allah protect and preserve him), affirming with the heart, testifying with the tongue and acting with the limbs. The actions of the limbs are from the completeness of Eemaan. Faith increases with obedience to Allah and decreases with disobedience.
Eid                                         Day of Festival
Eid Al Adha                         Annual festival of sacrifice between 10-13 of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah.               
Eid Al Fitr                            Annual festival on the 1st of Shawwal after a month of fasting in Ramadan.

Fa-idah                                 Benefit
Fajr                                        Morning prayer, which is offered after dawn and before sunrise. Dawn.
Falas                                      Bankrupt
Faqeer                                   Poor.
Faqih                                     Person who has sound knowledge of fiqh.
Faraq                                    Another word that is used as a substitute for talaq which means separation.
Fard (pi. Faraaidh)            Obligatory. Compulsory.
Fardu Ayn                            A compulsion on every Muslim male and female
Fardu Kifayah                    A collective obligation or duty of the Muslims. When some of the Muslims in an area do this, the obligation sis discharged. If no one does it, everyone in the area would be considered sinful – e.g. salatul janazah.
al Farooq/Faruq                Title of Khalifah Umar meaning ‘the distinguisher between the right and wrong’.
Fasakh                                  When a marriage contract is annulled from the side of wife.
Fasid                                      Wrong (null and void).
Fataawa                              see Fatwa.
Fatwa (pl. Fataawa)           religious verdict.
Fee Sabeelil Laah/ Fisabillilah         In the way of Allah.
Fiddah                                   Silver.
Fijar:                                     Sacrilegious war. This battle took place among the Arabs before Islam. It was given this name because it violated the sacredness of the Haram and the sacred months. These months were regarded as sacred and respected among the Arabs even before Islam.
Fiqh                                   Jurisprudence, the understanding and application of the Shariah from its sources.
Fiqhuz Zakah                      Islamic laws regarding zakah.
Fir’awn                                 Translation of the name for Pharoah, and ancient ruler in Egypt.
Firdaus                                The middle and the highest part of the Jannah.
Firqatu Fashkin                  Dissolution by annulment.
Firqatu Talaqin                  Dissolution by divorce.
Fitnah (pl. fitan)                 This linguistically refers to calamities, trials, tribulations and mischief.